作为哲学概念的剩余

书名:作为哲学概念的剩余
作者:张寅
译者:
ISBN:9787309150391
出版社:复旦大学出版社
出版时间:2020-9
格式:epub/mobi/azw3/pdf
页数:249
豆瓣评分:

书籍简介:

本书从斯宾诺莎、康德、黑格尔和马克思这四位现代哲学家的角度展示了当代激进思想中的一个关键概念:剩余。这一概念被界定为社会领域中的某个一般概念与它所包含的某个本地化的特殊范围之间必然存在的差距,而资本主义生产方式虽然到处遇到并不断生产出这一差距,却又倾向于否认它的力量,把某种客观的、统一的原则强加到生产和整个社会生活之上。尽管斯宾诺莎、康德和黑格尔并没有运用剩余这一概念,但他们的哲学隐含地以各自的思路处理了这个现实的问题。马克思的价值理论和剩余价值学说则不仅说明了生 产中的剩余原则,而且批判了资本主义生产方式强加到社会领域中的客观性。这种客观性的终极体现就是马克思所说的价值,而对价值的理解需要借助康德和黑格尔对理念的思考。在价值的支配下,剩余的原则变成了剩余价值的不断生产,这从根本上影响了如今的全球资本主义。马克思的剩余价值学说即是对资本主义生产方式对剩余既依赖、又否认的复杂关系的详细描绘。

作者简介:

张寅,博士毕业于复旦大学哲学学院,主要研究领域为当代激进思想、政治经济学批判和德国古典哲学。现为复旦大学哲学学院讲师。

书友短评:

导言········································································1
第一章 对剩余的初步考察··········································· 1
第一节 剩余:“我死后将有大洪水”·····························3
一、一般概念一特殊的表达和范围一实际处境········· 3
二、技术领域与社会领域·····································6
三、剩余的概念和特征·······································10
四、反对剩余的三种企图····································14
第二节 过剩人口:前资本主义社会的核心问题············19
一、技术的方面················································19
二、政治的方面 ···············································25
三、存在论的方面·············································30
第三节 剩余价值:资本主义社会的核心问题···············33
一、陌生 ························································34
二、突破性的行动·············································36
三、实际处境的转变··········································39
第四节 研究方法和相关文献····································43
一、哲学的研究方法··········································44
二、对真理的回应方式 ······································50
三、相关文献···················································54
第二章 斯宾诺莎:对剩余的忠诚·································· 57
第一节 斯宾诺莎的剩余问题:自我保存的努力·············59
一、常见的误解·················································60
二、自我保存的努力···········································63
三、三种知识形式··············································67
第二节 《神学政治论》对第一种知识形式的批判···········74
一、宗教的统治和想象·········································74
二、法律、意见和民族·········································79
第三节 《伦理学》对第一种和第二种知识形式的批判······84
一、持续时间的长短·············································85
二、永恒····························································87
三、第三种知识形式留下的难题······························92
第三章 康德:对剩余的常规化·········································97
第一节 康德的剩余问题:先验理念·······························99
一、建构性原则与范导性原则································100
二、知性概念与先验理念······································103
三、三类先验理念···············································104
第二节《实践理性批判》中的客观法则························109
一、道德法则的客观性·········································109
二、“普通的知性”················································114
三、伪善和犬儒主义············································118
第三节《判断力批判》中的合目的性 ··························122
一、合目的性的概念············································122
二、美和崇高·····················································125
三、整个自然的合目的性 ·····································128
第四章 黑格尔:对剩余的强行推进 ································ 133
第一节 黑格尔的剩余问题:无限目的 ··························135
一、辩证法的格式···············································136
二、无限目的·····················································141
三、思辨的立场··················································144
第二节 《精神现象学》中的恐怖和恶 ··························148
一、两种常见的解释············································148
二、恐怖与道德··················································151
三、世界历史个人的恶·········································156
第三节《历史哲学》中的哲学的历史···························163
一、反映的历史与哲学的历史································163
二、中国和日耳曼···············································165
三、散落的历史··················································168
第五章 马克思:剩余的复兴 ··········································173
第一节 剩余价值(一)·············································177
一、一个极度简化的模型·······································177
二、剥削····························································179
三、逃出剥削关系················································182
四、《资本论》的地位··········································187
第二节 价值理论·······················································190
一、价值理论的地位·············································190
二、价值形式······················································193
三、完善的资本主义生产方式·································196
第三节 剩余价值(二)··············································224
一、资本家对消费者的依赖····································224
二、马尔萨斯和卢森堡的解决方案···························227
三、福利国家的解决方案·······································229
四、全球资本主义的国际分工·································231
结语··········································································237
参考文献····································································243
致谢··········································································249
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